Jimmy Turnbull

Prof Jimmy Turnbull BVM&S, MSc, PhD, FHEA, MRCVS

T: +44 (0)1786 467913
E: j.f.turnbull at stir dot ac dot uk

Prof of Aquatic Population Health and Welfare

I am Professor of Aquatic Animal Health and Welfare in the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling. My research interests lie in understanding determinants of health and welfare in farmed aquatic populations and translating that understanding into improved farming practices. I have been working in this area since 1998. I was the Course Director for the MSc in Aquatic Veterinary Studies and Aquatic Pathobiology for more than 14 years and currently provide specialist lectures at several UK universities. I have acted as external examiner for PhD theses in the UK, Belgium, Norway, India and Australia.

Our group currently has research funding from Defra (UK Department of the Environment Food and Rural Affairs), Sarf (Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum), EU STREP funding (Specific Targeted REsearch Project European Commission Sixth Framework programme), the British Trout Association, The Fisheries Research Service (an Agency of the Scottish Government) and Marine Harvest Ltd.

After the age of five I was brought up on close to the sea on the west coast of Scotland and always had a fascination with things aquatic. After school I went to veterinary college in Edinburgh and during my time there I developed a keen interest in production animal health which I followed during 6 years in general vet practice. However, a decline in the demand for farm animal vets led me back to things aquatic and specifically commercial production of fish. I first completed an MSc in Aquatic Veterinary Studies, followed by a part time PhD on fin damage in Atlantic salmon parr, at the Institute of Aquaculture. During the PhD I also worked in diagnostics and health advice to a group of commercial farms.

Following my PhD my job entailed aquatic animal health consultancies on behalf of the institute combined with an increasing role in teaching. Much of my work at that time was in South East Asia on cultured shrimp. Towards the end of the 1990s I increased the amount of time I devoted to research, especially in Europe, and was fortunate to obtain continuous research funding building up the Aquatic Population Health and Welfare group in the process. It is a little bit difficult to define the group since it has joint projects and posts with other groups but the main personnel include myself, a Lecturer, 3 Post-docs, a web application developer and 3 PhD students. We also have 1 Post-Doc and 5 PhD students shared with other groups in the department.

During my career I have been extremely lucky to collaborate and become friends with some exceptional people who have been an inspiration and great practical support. Some of the things I learned might be summarised as:

You can be ethical and successful - Felicity Huntingford
If you assume you can do anything you can find a way to do most things - Kenton Morgan
Different people need different incentives but always be polite - Supranee Chinabut
No privilege comes without responsibility - CV Mohan
A massive amount about fish - Iain Semple and Colin Adams
Sleep is optional - Pornlerd Charatchakool
Everything he knew about statistics - Tony Patterson
How to delegate - Margaret Crumlish
Never talk up to or down to anyone - John and Mary Turnbull
A work ethic - John and Mary Turnbull
There is more to life than work - Connor Turnbull


1. Turnbull, J.F., Richards, R.H., & Tatner, M.F. (1989) Evidence that superficial colonies on the gills of Salmo salar L. are not Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases. 12, 449-458.

2. Hossain, Md.S. & Turnbull, J.F. (1991) Persistence of Aeromonas salmonicida within two bath challenge systems. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 6, 57-63.

3. Turnbull, J.F. (1992) Disease in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L) and brown trout Salmon trutta L. in aquaculture. Icelandic Agricultural Sciences. 6, 93-98.

4. Hossain, Md.S. & Turnbull, J.F. (1992) Release of Aeromonas salmonicida from infected dead Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Bangladeshi Journal of Zoology. 7, 65-70.

5. Jónsdóttir, H., Bron, J., Wootten, R. & Turnbull, J.F. (1992) The histopathology associated with the pre-adult and adult stages of Lepeophtheirus salmonis on the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases. 15, 521-528.

6. Guillen, J.L., Endo, M., Turnbull, J.F., Kawatsu, H. & Richards, R.H. (1993) Depressed growth and damage to the cartilage of red sea bream (Pagrus major) larvae associated with exposure to ammonia. Nippon Suisan Gakkish. 57, 1231-1234.

7. Turnbull, J.F., Larkins, P.E., McPadden, C. & Matondang, R. (1994) A histopathological disease survey of cultured shrimp in North East Sumatera. Journal of Fish Diseases. 17, 57-65.

8. Guillen, J.L., Endo, M., Turnbull, J.F., Kawatsu, H. Richards, R.H. & Aoki, T. (1994) Skin responses and Mortalities in the Larvae of the Japanese Croaker Exposed to Ammonia. Fisheries Science. 60, 547-550.

9. Larkins, P.E., Coutts, R.R., Dewi, E. & Turnbull, J.F. (1995) Trends in disease problems in the Black Tiger Prawn, Penaeus monodon, cultured along the Malacca Straits coast of North Saumatra Province from 1984 to 1993. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture II, 57-63.

10. Turnbull, J.F., Richards, R.H. & Robertson, D.A. (1996) Gross, histological and scanning electron microscopic appearance of dorsal fin rot in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr. Journal of Fish Diseases. 19, 415-427.

11. Turnbull, J.F., Adams, C.E., Richards, R.H. & Robertson, D.A. (1998) Attack site and resultant damage during aggressive encounters in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Aquaculture. 159, 345-353.

12. Gomez-GiI, B., Tron-Mayen, L. Turnbull, J.F., Inglis, V. & Guerra-Flores, A.L. (1998) Species of Vibrio isolated from the hepatopancreas, haemolymph and digestive tract of a population of healthy juvenile Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture. 163, 1-8.

13. Roque, A., Turnbull, J.F. &. Gomez-Gil, B. (1998) Delivery of Bioencapsulated Oxytetracycline to the Marine Shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 29, 249-251.

14. Roque, A., Turnbull, J.F., Escalante, G., Gomez-Gil, B. & Alday-Sanz, M.V. (1998) Development of a bath challenge for marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture. 169, 283-290.

15. Adams, C.E., Huntingford, F.A., Turnbull, J.F. & Beattie, C. (1998) Alternative competitive strategies and the cost of food acquisition in juvenile Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture. 167, 17-26.

16. Gomez-Gil, B., Roque, A., Turnbull, J.F. & Inglis, V. (1998) A review on the use of microorganisms as probiotics. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologia. 40, 166-172.

17. Decostere, A., Haesebroucke, F., Turnbull, J.F. & Charlier, G. (1999) Influence of water quality and temperature on adhesion of high and low virulence Flavobacterium columnare strains to isolate gill arches. Journal of Fish Diseases. 22, 1-11.

18. Del Rio-Rodriguez, R.E. & Turnbull, J.F. (1999) Aerobic microflora of imported ornamental fish from Singapore and South America. Part 1: Characterisation. Fish Veterinary Journal. 4, 1-16.

19. Decostere, A., Turnbull, J.F. Ducatelle, R. & Haesebroucke, F. (2000) Development of a gill perfusion apparatus for studying the interaction of fish pathogens with gill tissue. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 28, 53-61.

20. Gomez-Gil, B., Roque, A. & Turnbull, J.F. (2000) The use and selection of probiotic bacteria for use in the culture of larval aquatic organisms. Aquaculture. 191, 259-270.

21. Romero, X., Turnbull, J.F. & Jimenez, R. (2000) Ultrastructure and cytopathology of Rickettsiella cheraxi (sp. Nov.) a systemic pathogen of redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Crustacea: Decapoda), in Ecuador. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 76, 95-104.

22. Adams, C.E., Huntingford, F.A., Turnbull, J.F., Arnott, S. & Bell, A. (2000) Size heterogeneity can reduce aggression and promote growth in Atlantic Salmon parr. Aquaculture International. 8, 543-549.

23. Corsin, F., Turnbull, J.F., Hao, N.V., Mohan, C.V., Phi, T.T, Phuoc, L.H., Tinh, N.T.N. & Morgan, K.L. (2001) Risk factors associated with White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system. Disease of Aquatic Organisms. 47, 1-12.

24. Ferguson, H.W., Turnbull, J.F., Shinn, A., Thompson, K., Dung, T.T. & Crumlish, M. (2001) Bacillary Necrosis in farmed Pangasius spp. from the Mekong Delta. Journal of Fish Diseases. 24, 509-514.

25. Corsin, F., Turnbull, J.F., Hao, N.V., Mohan, C.V., Phi, T.T., Phuoc, L.H., Tinh, N.T.N. & Morgan, K.L. (2002) Problems and solutions with the design and execution of an epidemiological study of white spot disease in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Vietnam. Preventative Veterinary Medicine. 53, 117-132.

26. Del Rio-Rodriguez, R.E. & Turnbull, J.F. (2002) Aerobic microflora of imported ornamental fish from Singapore and South America. Part 2: Antimicrobial Resistant Profiles of Motile Aeromonads. Fish Veterinary Journal. 6, 1-21.

27. Alday-Sanz, V.M., Roque, A. & Turnbull, J.F. (2002) Clearing mechanisms of Vibrio vulnificus biotype I in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 48, 91-99.

28. Thakur, P.C., Corsin, F., Turnbull, J.F., Shankar, K.M., Hao, N.V., Padiyar, P.A., Madhusudhan, M., Morgan, K.L. & Mohan, C.V. (2002) Estimation of prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by polymerase chain reaction in Penaeus monodon postlarvae at time of stocking in shrimp farms of Karnataka, India: a population-based study. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 49, 235-243.

29. Mohan, C.V., Corsin, F., Thakur, P.C., Padiyar, P.A., Madhusudan, M., Turnbull, J.F., Hao, N.V. & Morgan, K.L. (2002) Usefulness of dead shrimp specimens to study the epidemiology of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and chronic bacterial infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 50, 1-8.

30. Adams, C., Briathwaite, V., Huntingford, F., Kadri, S., Pottinger, T. & Turnbull, J.F. (2002) Fish Welfare. Briefing Paper 2, Fisheries Society of the British Isles, Granta Information Systems. http://www.leicester.ac.uk/biology/fsbi/welfare.pdf

31. Crumlish, M., Dung, T.T., Turnbull, J.F., Ngoc, N.T.N. & Ferguson, H.W. (2002) Identification of Edwardsiella ictaluri from diseased freshwater catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage) cultured in Mekong delta, Vietnam. Journal of Fish Diseases. 25, 733-736.

32. Bell, A., Bron, J., Turnbull, J. F., Adams, C. E. & Huntingford F. A. (2002) Factors influencing the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in commercial marine cages. Research in Veterinary Science. 72, Supp. 1, 7-8.

33. Corsin, F., Thakur, P.C., Padiyar, P.A., Madhusudhan, M., Turnbull, J.F., Mohan, C.V., Hao, N.V. & Morgan, K.L. (2003) Relationship between WSSV and indicators of quality in Penaeus monodon post-larvae in Karnataka, India. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 54, 97-104.

34. Labrie, L., Roque, A., Gomez-Gil, B. & Turnbull, J.F. (2003) Effect of methyl parathion on the susceptibility of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to experimental vibriosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 57, 265-270.

35. Komar, C., Turnbull, J.F., Roque, A., Fajer, E. & Duncan, N.J. (2004) Effect of water treatment and aeration on the percentage hatch of demersal, adhesive eggs of the bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus). Aquaculture. 229, 147-158.

36. Corsin, F., Turnbull, J.F. Mohan, C.V. Hao, N.V. & Morgan, K.L. (2005) Pond-level risk factors for White Spot disease outbreaks. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture V, 75-92.

37. Turnbull, J.F., Corsin, F., Mohan, C.V., Padiyar, P.A., Thakur, P.C., Madhusudan, M., Hao, N.V. & Morgan, K.L. (2005) Optimising Emergency Harvest Strategy for White Spot Disease in a Semi-Intensive Penaeus monodon Culture System in Karnataka, India. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture V, 405-414.

38. Turnbull, J.F., Bell, A., Adams, C., Bron, J. & Huntingford, F.A. (2005) Stocking density and welfare of cage farmed Atlantic salmon: application of a multivariate analysis. Aquaculture. 243, 121-132.

39. Baily, J.E., Gavine, F.M., Bretherton, M.J., Turnbull, J.F. & Ferguson, H.W. (2005) The Pathology of Chronic Erosive Dermatopathy in Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii. Journal of Fish Diseases. 28, 3-12.

40. Huntingford, F.A., Adams, C., Braithwaite, V.A., Kadri, S., Pottinger, T.G., Sandøe, P. & Turnbull, J.F. (2006) Current Understanding On Fish Welfare: A Broad Overview. Journal of Fish Biology. 68, 332-372.

41. North, B.P., Turnbull, J.F., Ellis, T., Porter, M.J., Migaud, H., Bron, J. & Bromage, N.R. (2006) The Impact of stocking density on the welfare of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 255, 466-479.

42. North, B.P., Ellis, T., Davies, J. & Turnbull, J.F. (2006) Stocking density practices of commercial UK rainbow trout farms. Aquaculture. 259, 260-267.

43. St-Hilaire, S., Ellis, T., Cooke, A., North, B. P., Turnbull, J. F., Knowles, T. & Kestin, S. (2006) Fin erosion on rainbow trout on commercial trout farms in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Record. 159, 446-450.

44. Sharkey, K.J., Fernandez, C., Morgan, K.L., Peeler, E., Thrush, M., Turnbull, J.F. & Bowers, R.G. (2006) Pair-level approximations to the spatio-temporal dynamics of epidemics on asymmetric contact networks. Journal of Mathematical Biology. 53, 61-85.

45. Adams, C., Turnbull, J.F., Bell, A., Bron, J. & Huntingford, F.A. (2007) Multiple determinants of welfare in farmed fish: stocking density, disturbance and aggression in salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 64, 336-344.

46. Hoyle, I., Oidtmann, B., Ellis, T., Turnbull, J., North, B., Nikolaidis, J. & Knowles, T.G. (2007) A validated macroscopic key to assess fin damage in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 270, 142–148.

47. Turnbull J.F. & Kadri, S. (2007) Safeguarding the many guises of fish welfare. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 75,173-182

48. Turnbull, J.F., North, B.P., Ellis, T., Adams, C., Bron, J., MacIntyre, C. & Huntingford, F.A. (2008) Socking density and the welfare of farmed salmonids. In: Fish Welfare. Ed. Branson, E. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 111-118.

49. MacIntyre, C., Ellis, T. North, B.P. & Turnbull, J.F. (2008) The influences of water quality on the welfare of farmed trout: a review. In: Fish Welfare. Ed. Branson, E. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 150-178.

50. North, B.P., Ellis, T. Bron, J., Knowles, T. & Turnbull, J.F. (2008) The use of stakeholder focus groups to identify indicators for the on-farm assessment of trout welfare. In: Fish Welfare. Ed. Branson, E. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 243-266.

51. Ellis, T., Oidtmann, B., St-Hilaire, S., Pond, C., Turnbull, J.F., North, B., MacIntyre, C., Nikolaidis, J., Kestin, S.C., Knowles, T. & Hoyle, I. (2008) Fin erosion in farmed fish. In: Fish Welfare. Ed. Branson, E. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 121-142.

52. Chi, T.T.K., Dalsgsaard, A., Turnbull, J. F., Tuan, P. A. and Murrell, K. D. (2008) Prevalence of zoonotic trematodes in fish from a Vietnamese fish-farming community. Journal of Parasitology 94: 423-428.


Turnbull, J.F. (1993) Bacterial gill disease and fin rot. In: Bacterial Diseases of Fish. Eds. Inglis, V.B., Roberts, R.J. and Bromage, N.R. Blackwells Scientific Publications, London.

Turnbull, J.F. (1993) Epitheliocystis and salmonid rickettsial septicaemia. In: Bacterial Diseases of Fish. Eds. Inglis, V.B., Roberts, R.J. & Bromage, N.R. Blackwells Scientific Publications, London.

Chanratchakool, P., Turnbull, J.F. & Limsuwan, C. (1994) Health management in shrimp ponds. 91pp. ISBN 974-7604-39-6. (Translated into Thai, Bahasa Indonesia, Vietnamese, Chinese and Bengali).

Chanratchakool, P., Turnbull, J.F., Funge-Smith, S. & Limsuwan, C. (1995) Health management in shrimp ponds. 2nd Edition. 123pp. ISBN 974-7604-42-6.

Chanratchakool, P., Turnbull, J.F., Funge-Smith, S., MacRae, I.H. & Limsuwan, C. (1998) Health management in shrimp ponds. 3rd Edition. 152pp. ISBN 974-7604-51-5.

Garcia-Garbi, N., Inglis, V. & Turnbull, J.F. (1998) Assessment of phagocytosis by the Flourochrome acridine orange. In: Methodology in Fish Disease Research. Ed. Barnes, A. Fish Research Services Aberdeen Scotland. ISBN 0-9532838-0-1.

Turnbull, J.F. (2006) Musculo-skeletal system. In: Systemic Pathology of Fish: A Text and Atlas of Normal Tissues in Teleosts and Their Responses in Disease Ed. Ferguson, H.W. Scotian Press. ISBN 0-9553037-0-2 and 978-0-9553037-0-8.

Conference contributions:

First named author on 7 presentations between 1990 and 1998

Co-author on 7 presentations between 1990 and 1998

Co-author on 18 presentations since 1998

Turnbull, J.F. & Chanratchakool, P. (1998) Use of Immunostimulants in Shrimp Culture. Shrimp Immunity and Disease Control: an integrated approach - IFS. November, Chiang Mai (Thailand).

Turnbull, J.F. & Chanratchakool, P. (1998) Field trials as a means of evaluating immunostimulation in shrimp health management. Advances in Shrimp Biotechnology. Proceedings to the Special Session on Shrimp Biotechnology 5th Asian Fisheries Forum. November, Chaingmai (Thailand).

Turnbull, J.F. & Chanratchakool, P. (1999) Field based approach to shrimp health problems. The annual international conference of the World Aquaculture Society. April-May, Sydney (Australia).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (1999) An epidemiological study of White Spot Disease in a rice-shrimp culture system in the Mekong delta. DFID/FAO/NACA Workshop on aquatic animal health care in rural aquaculture. September, Dhaka (Bangladesh).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (2000) Effects of Stocking Density and Starvation on the Behaviour and Levels of Stress in Atlantic Salmon In Marine Cages. LINK Aquaculture Conference. March, Glasgow (UK).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (2002) Predicting outbreaks of White Spot Disease in a semi-intensive Penaeus monodon culture system in Karnataka, India. 5th Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. November, Brisbane (Australia).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (2003) An epidemiological study of White Spot Disease in shrimp farms of Karnataka India. SVEPM. April, Warwick (UK).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (2004) Stocking density and fish welfare. Fish Veterinary Society – Fish Welfare Meeting. November, Edinburgh (UK).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (2005) Analysis of multiple outcomes: dealing with data in the real world. 6th Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. October, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

Turnbull, J.F. et al. (2006) Bacillary Necrosis of Pangasius integration of Epidemiology and other disciplines. AVTRW. November, Glasgow (UK).

Turnbull, J.F. (2006) Fish Welfare. Ornamental Aquatic Trade Association. Coventry (UK)

Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum, British Trout Association - £54,928

Developing practical strategies for reducing the spread of harmful organisms during the transportation of live fish. From March 2008 for 1 year.

EU - Specific Targeted Research Project - total budget €2.2million (ca. £1.45million) EC contribution €1.26million (ca. £840K)

Evaluation and modelling of benefits and costs of fish welfare interventions in European aquaculture (Benefish).

From February 2007 for 3 years.

Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum, British Trout Association - £90,000

Sentinel farms for emerging diseases in the UK trout industry.

From March 2007 for 2 years.

DEFRA, Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum - £143,793

Development of a risk evaluation system for the establishment of Gyrodactylus salaris in English and Welsh river systems.

June 2006 for 2.5 years. Principal investigator Dr A Shinn, Stirling, held jointly with CEFAS Weymouth.

DEFRA, Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum, British Trout Association - £102,613

A study of the aetiology and control of rainbow trout gastroenteritis (RTGE).

From October 2005 for 3.5 years including a PhD studentship.

DEFRA – £298,721

Rainbow trout fin erosion, epidemiological analysis of prevalence, development, risk factors and effects on welfare.

From December 2004 to September 2008, held jointly with CEFAS Weymouth, with the University of Bristol as sub-contractors.

British Trout Association – £52,500

Niall Bromage Studentship, PhD Water quality and farmed rainbow trout welfare.

From March 2005 for 3.5 years.